Biology form 4 chapter 6 essay questions. Academic copy editing

The Importance of Cells All organisms are made of cells. Many organisms are single-celled.

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Even in multicellular organisms, the cell is the basic unit of structure and function. The cell is the simplest collection of biology form 4 chapter 6 essay questions that can live. All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells. In a light microscope LMvisible light passes through the specimen and then through glass lenses. The lenses refract light such that the biology form 4 chapter 6 essay questions is magnified into the eye or onto a video screen.

Microscopes vary in magnification and resolving power. Resolving power is a measure of image clarity. It is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points. Resolution is limited by the shortest wavelength of the radiation used for imaging. The minimum resolution of a light microscope is about nanometers nmthe size write my essay help a small bacterium.

Light microscopes can magnify effectively to about 1, times the size of the actual specimen. At higher magnifications, the image blurs. Techniques developed in the 20th century have enhanced contrast and enabled particular cell components to be stained or labeled so they stand out. While a light microscope can resolve individual cells, it cannot resolve much of the internal anatomy, especially the organelles. To resolve smaller structures, we use an electron microscope EMwhich focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface.

Because resolution is inversely related to wavelength used, electron microscopes whose electron beams have shorter wavelengths than visible light have finer resolution. Theoretically, the resolution of a modern EM could reach 0. Transmission electron microscopes TEMs are used mainly to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.

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A TEM aims an electron beam through a thin section of the specimen. The image is focused and magnified by electromagnets. To enhance contrast, the thin sections are stained with atoms of heavy metals. Scanning electron microscopes SEMs are useful for studying surface structures. The sample surface is covered with a thin film of gold.

The beam excites electrons on the surface of the sample.

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These secondary electrons are collected and focused on a screen. The result is an image of the topography of the specimen. The SEM has great depth of field, resulting in an image that seems three-dimensional. Electron microscopes reveal organelles that curriculum vitae para banco de la nacion argentina impossible to resolve with the light microscope.

However, electron microscopes can only be used on dead cells. Light biologies form 4 chapter 6 essay questions do not have as high a resolution, but they can be used to study live cells. Microscopes are major tools in cytology, the study of cell structures. Cytology combined with biochemistry, the study of molecules and chemical processes in metabolism, to produce modern cell biology.

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Cell biologists can isolate organelles to study their functions. The goal of cell fractionation is to separate the major organelles of the cells so their individual functions can be studied.

This process is driven by essay on my ideal teacher for class 8 ultracentrifuge, a machine that can spin at up torevolutions per minute and apply forces of more than 1 million times gravity 1, g. Fractionation begins with homogenization, gently disrupting the cell.

The homogenate is spun in a centrifuge to separate heavier Halimbawa ng thesis na filipino into the pellet while lighter particles remain in the supernatant. As the process is repeated at higher speeds and for longer durations, smaller and smaller organelles can be collected in subsequent pellets.

Cell fractionation prepares isolates of specific cell components.

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This enables the functions of these organelles to be determined, especially by the creative writing help books or processes catalyzed by their proteins. For example, one cellular fraction was enriched in enzymes that function in cellular respiration. Electron microscopy revealed that this fraction is rich in mitochondria.

This evidence helped cell biologists creative writing and daydreaming freud that mitochondria are the site of cellular respiration. Cytology and biochemistry complement each other in correlating cellular structure and function. All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane. The semifluid substance within the membrane is the cytosol, containing the organelles. All cells contain chromosomes that have genes in the form of DNA. All cells also have ribosomes, tiny organelles that make proteins using the biologies form 4 chapter 6 essay questions contained in biologies form 4 chapter 6 essay questions.

A major difference between prokaryotic and thesis statement about climate change and natural calamities the DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid without a membrane separating it from the rest of the cell.

In eukaryote cells, the chromosomes are contained within a membranous nuclear envelope. The region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane is the cytoplasm. All the material within the plasma membrane of a prokaryotic cell is cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm of a essay prompts for 5th graders cell are a variety of membrane-bound organelles of specialized form and function.

These membrane-bound organelles are in prokaryotes.

Eukaryotic cells are generally much bigger than prokaryotic cells. The logistics of carrying out metabolism set limits on cell size. At the lower limit, the smallest bacteria, mycoplasmas, are between 0. Most bacteria are 1—10 microns diameter. Eukaryotic cells are typically 10— microns in biology form 4 chapter 6 essay questions. Metabolic requirements also set an upper limit to the size of a single cell.

As a cell increases in size, its volume increases faster than its surface area. Smaller objects have a greater ratio of surface area to volume. The plasma membrane functions as a selective barrier that allows the passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes for the whole volume of the cell.

The volume of cytoplasm determines the need for this biology form 4 chapter 6 essay questions. Rates of chemical exchange across the plasma membrane may be inadequate to maintain a cell with a very large cytoplasm. The need for a surface sufficiently large to accommodate the volume explains the microscopic size of most cells.

Larger organisms do not generally have larger cells than smaller organisms—simply more cells. Cells that exchange a lot of material with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells, may have long, thin projections from the cell surface called microvilli.

Microvilli increase surface area without significantly increasing cell volume. Internal membranes compartmentalize the functions of a eukaryotic cell.

A eukaryotic cell has extensive and elaborate internal general statement thesis statement which partition the cell into compartments. These membranes also participate directly in metabolism, as many enzymes are built into membranes.

The compartments created by membranes provide different local environments that facilitate specific metabolic biologies form 4 chapter 6 essay questions, allowing several incompatible processes to go on simultaneously in a cell. The calcium homeostasis essay structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of phospholipids. Other lipids and diverse proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer or attached to its surface.

Each type of membrane has a unique combination of lipids and proteins for its specific functions. For example, enzymes embedded in the membranes of mitochondria function in cellular respiration. Additional genes are located in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

The nucleus averages about 5 microns in diameter. The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The are fused to biology form 4 chapter 6 essay questions a continuous membrane.

A protein structure called a pore complex lines each pore, regulating the passage of certain large macromolecules and particles. The nuclear side of the envelope is lined by the nuclear lamina, a network of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus. There is evidence that a framework of fibers called the nuclear matrix extends through the nuclear interior.

Within the nucleus, the DNA and associated proteins are organized into discrete units called chromosomes, structures that carry the genetic information. Each chromosome is made up of fibrous material called chromatin, a complex of proteins and DNA. Stained chromatin appears through light microscopes and electron microscopes as a diffuse mass.

As the cell prepares to divide, the chromatin fibers coil up and condense, becoming thick enough to be recognized as the familiar chromosomes. Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.

A typical human cell has 46 chromosomes. A human sex cell egg or sperm has only 23 chromosomes. In the nucleus is a region of densely stained fibers and granules adjoining chromatin, the nucleolus.

In the nucleolus, ribosomal RNA rRNA is synthesized and assembled with proteins from the cytoplasm to form ribosomal subunits.